In 1559 Elizabeth I removed all influence from the Roman Catholic Church. This was because she wanted to secure her own position and it was therefore made illegal to celebrate Catholic Mass in England and Wales.
This continued to be the case until the Catholic Relief Act, also known as the Papists Act, came into force in 1778.
If you wish to trace your Catholic ancestors, you may find it difficult as records from this period are fragmentary and incomplete. Your ancestors may have worshipped in Anglican Churches, but many did not want to worship in an Anglican Church, or were not allowed to.
Few registers from ceremonies were kept because of the concern about them being discovered.
It was also not uncommon for private homes to become unofficial chapels.
During the 19th Century, there was a surge in popularity for
Catholicism because the Anti-Catholic legislation had been repealed and also
because of the mass Irish migration in the 1840's, partly because of the Irish
Potato Famine that began in 1845 and lasted for the next six years. In the meantime, the Catholic Emancipation Act of 1829 enabled Catholics to become Members of Parliament.
The population of Liverpool temporarily doubled in 1847 to 592,000 due to Irish migration. There were around 50,000 Irish living in Liverpool as shown by the 1841 Census, but by the time of the 1851 Census, that figure had grown to 84,000.
A Roman Catholic was often prosecuted for not attending the local Parish Church, so you should look for any possible Catholic ancestors you may have in quarter sessions.
Any such prosecution may have been mentioned in a newspaper, so it is worth checking newspapers in your local library or Record Office.
Catholicism was almost completely rooted out in some parts of England and Wales, but maintained deep roots in Lancashire, and also in parts of Durham, North Yorkshire, Northumberland, Staffordshire, Worcestershire and Monmouth.
Some Catholics decided to move abroad to escape persecution, and young women sometimes became Nuns in France and the Netherlands.
English, Welsh and Irish Catholics were still able to be educated in their faith as Schools were established by these orders.
Many of these institutions returned to England in the 1790's and still survive today.